Minggu, 21 Juni 2015

Agate (Akik)

Agate / æɡət / adalah berbagai cryptocrystalline silika, kalsedon terutama, ditandai dengan kehalusan gandum dan kecerahan warna. Meskipun agate dapat ditemukan dalam berbagai jenis batuan, mereka klasik terkait dengan batuan vulkanik dan dapat menjadi umum dalam batuan metamorf tertentu.
Di Indonesia agate dikenal sebagai batu akik.

Hunted, Rattan Sustainable Production


Association of Indonesian Furniture and Handicraft Rattan (AMKRI) expressed the greatest challenges of the industry today is the rattan cane to produce products that are environmentally friendly. "Most customers did ask that eco-friendly. But the challenge is, how do we conduct research in order to substitute the chemical products that are not environmentally friendly to environment-friendly products, "said Head of the International Relations AMKRI, Damayanti Siahaan, Monday, November 18, 2013.
According to him, during these manufacturers have difficulty in obtaining the chemicals that are environmentally friendly. Available on the market the majority of the chemicals that are not environmentally friendly. Therefore, AMKRI assess research should be done immediately.
For example, to paint, many manufacturers began to look for water-based because they want environmentally friendly products. "Later, there should be alternative raw materials that are environmentally friendly."
Damayanti said, manufacturers have not been able to calculate whether the use of environmentally friendly raw materials will increase production costs. He is convinced, environmentally friendly raw materials are expensive due to no depth research to develop it. Therefore, he encouraged the search environmentally friendly raw materials should be encouraged.
Head of Energy Assessment Assessment Center Green Industry, Agency for the Assessment Policy, Climate, and Quality of Industry, the Ministry of Industry, Ir Shinta Sirait, said many of rattan products were rejected as it is considered environmentally friendly. Governments and businesses must immediately fix it. "Moreover, a surge in the export of rattan derivative products," he said.
According to him, in the processing of cane derived products, chemicals are used to improve the durability, which prevents damage due to microorganisms, fungi, insects, and termites. The chemicals are also used to obtain the desired color manufacturer. Chemicals used is active boron compound, permethrin, phoxim, klorfirifos, and dimethylsulfoxide.

RATTAN PROCESSING INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT INDONESIA

In order to show the best results from the design of industrial products wicker and rattan furniture Indonesia as well as increased promotion and marketing of the development of national rattan processing industries then held exhibitions Furniture Products Rattan and Rattan Indonesia, the exhibition was attended by manufacturers of furniture and rattan Indonesia, which is incorporated in the ASMINDO members and AMKRI. The exhibition is held from May 27 to 30 November 2007.
To improve the competitiveness of the national rattan processing industry can be seen from the development of the rattan industry as follows:

1. Potential Raw Materials Rattan
Indonesia is the country's largest cane producer in the world, an estimated 80% of rattan raw materials worldwide is produced by Indonesia, the rest is produced by other countries such as the Philippines, Vietnam and other Asian countries.
Rattan producing areas, namely P. Kalimantan, P. Sumatra, Sulawesi P. and P. Papua with Indonesian rattan potential of about 622 000 tonnes / year
2. Development of Rattan Processing Industry (2003- 2006)
In the period 2003 - 2006, the capacity of national rattan processing industry only experienced an average growth of 0.38% per year or only increased from 545 405 tonnes / year to 551 585 tonnes / year and actual production fell from 381 784 tonnes in 2003, became 372 761 tons in 2006, or grew by an average of - 0.79% per year.
Rattan export volume of processed decreased from 193 078 tonnes in 2003 to 172 782 tonnes in 2006, down by an average of - 3.63% per year, but on the other hand value increased from US $ 359 million to US $ 399 million, up an average of 3.58% per year. This indicates an increase in the export price per unit of cane processed products. Meanwhile for the import of processed rattan, although relatively small in volume and value compared with the volume and value of exports, but growth is very rapid, so that needs to be watched only in the period 2003 - 2006, imports of processed rattan increased from 788 tonnes (worth US $ 1.41 million ) increased to 2,709 tonnes (worth US $ 3.74 million) or the volume of imports grew by an average of 50.92% per year, while the average value rose by 38.43% per year.
Rattan industry, mostly located in Cirebon and surrounding areas. In the period 2001 - 2004, both the number of companies, production, exports and employment in the sub-sector in Cirebon rattan processing industry has increased, with the number of companies increased from 923 business units into 1,060 business units, production increased from 62 707 tonnes to 91 181 tonnes, exports increased from 32 871 tonnes (worth US $ 101.67 million) to 51 544 tonnes (valued at US $ 116,572 million) and employment increased from 51 432 people became 61 140 people. However, since 2005, production, exports and employment in the sub-sector in Cirebon rattan processing industry experienced a significant decline. And the decline continued in 2006.
In 2007, some rattan furniture producers in Cirebon decreased production, the original of which can export a total of 120 containers per month, is currently only able to export 15-20 containers, even there are not productive anymore. It is caused by the difficulty of obtaining raw material quality rattan, but instead in competitor countries such raw materials are more readily available. As a result, many small rattan entrepreneurs who originally as a sub-contractor does not get a job again, giving rise to a lot of unemployment. Besides that, also impacted on the inhibition of return of credit by banks to the rattan processing industry (aka bad loans). If this is not addressed, it could be a rattan processing industry would be worse off.
Rattan processing industry downturn, both occurring on a national scale and in the industrial district of Cirebon since 2005 allegedly cause is the release of Trade Ministerial Decree No. 12 / M-DAG / PER / 6/2005 on the export of rattan, which allows the export of raw materials and semi-finished rattan cane (plus the flow of rattan raw materials abroad illegally), resulting in rattan processing industry in the country is difficult to get raw material. On the other hand, the rattan processing industry in competing countries, especially China and Taiwan are growing more rapidly, so grab market share and market potential exports of rattan from Indonesia.
On the other hand exports of rattan products in China in 2002 was balanced with Indonesia amounted to US $ 340,000, in 2006 has increased four-fold, while Indonesia as a producer of raw rattan rattan product exports decreased activity.


3. Policy in the Field Rattan and Its Impact on National Rattan Industry
Prior to 1986, Indonesia is the largest exporter of rattan raw materials in the world, while the national rattan processing industry has not developed at that time.
Since 1986, with the issuance of the Decree of the Minister of Trade No. 274 / KP / X / 1986 on the prohibition of the export of raw rattan, national rattan processing industry has developed very rapidly in the increase of only 20 companies to 300 companies. Meanwhile, rattan processing industry abroad (Taiwan and Europe) rely on the supply of raw materials from Indonesia many bankruptcies and shift its business to Indonesia, especially in the area of ​​Cirebon.
In a further development when the export of raw rattan reopened in 2005, with the issuance of the Decree of the Minister of Trade No. 12 / M-DAG / PER / 6/2005 on Export Rattan, rattan processing industry national development falters and business activities became sluggish, so the impact on the occurrence of unemployment, bad credit, reduced foreign exchange earnings and a decline in the contribution of national rattan processing industry GDP formation. By contrast in competitor countries such as China, Taiwan and Italy rattan processing industry revived and is growing very rapidly.

4. Problems faced Rattan Processing Industry, among others,
Raw Material
National rattan processing industries are having trouble getting raw materials yangdisebabkan among others, the policy of export of raw rattan cane and is still rampant smuggling abroad
Production mastery finishing technology still lag well as design products processed rattan is still determined by the purchaser from abroad (job order).
· Marketing
The weakness of market intelligence, resulting in limited information export markets.

5. Development Strategy
To overcome the problems faced by the above-mentioned rattan processing industry developed the following strategies:
A review of rattan raw materials export policy and the improvement of cane eradication of smuggling abroad.
Improving the ability of market intelligence, with optimizing the function Atperindag and diplomatic representatives abroad, actively participates in exhibition events prestigious rattan products abroad.


6. Follow-up Policy
To revive the national rattan processing industry required the support of all parties (stakeholders) to work together synergistically to put national interests above personal interests, group or sector.
Need to be reconsideration on Export Rattan contained in the Regulation of the Minister of Trade No. 12 / M-DAG / PER / 6/2005, in order to ensure the continuity of supply of raw rattan in the country, as well as increased product competitiveness rattan goods abroad.



 
Department of Industry

 
General Affairs and Public Relations